Investing… Stocks… Bonds… Mutual Funds… Markets… Internal Rates of Return… Value versus Growth Investing… ESG Investing… Portfolios… ETFs… Savings Rates… Risk Profiles…
There is so much out there when it comes to the parts and principles of investing that it can be hard to digest. On one hand, we are told to invest, and on the other, we are told to not do anything without knowing what we’re doing. That ideology can force a rift in people’s planning and cause them to be idle. I have had clients who sit on tens of thousands of dollars in their bank account, and most often the reason is that they don’t understand their options.
The richest men in the world have built their fortunes by having multiple streams of income. Jeff Bezos, the founder and owner of Amazon, is currently the richest man on earth. If we looked at his income strategy, you would see multiple inflows. First, he has his salary from Amazon. Secondly, he has his Amazon shares that increase in value as the company grows. Third, I imagine we would find that he has money tucked away into shares of other companies, which are also growing. All of these sources accumulate to roughly $2500 per second in income (from “The Registered Citizen”).
Especially with the current ongoing crisis, there are lots of headlines that say you should stay away from the world markets. Oddly enough, you can often find a link nearby that will tell you how to setup a ‘side-gig’ from home to earn more money. Each person has a unique situation, and in this post, I would like to explore how you can design your own secondary income streams. I will be using the analogy of a car, as it makes it easier to conceptualize investment components.
First, I would like to define the difference between ‘Active’ and ‘Passive’ income. It’s pretty self-explanatory, but active income (also known as “earned income”) refers to income you have to physically make. This would include going out to a job and getting paid a wage/salary. Passive income on the other hand is income gained for you by others. Investing falls into the category of passive income.
For the purpose of simplicity, I will speak in terms of mutual funds (which I will define later). Investing can be broken down into two parts: Equity and Fixed Income.
Equities, also known as stocks, are the engine of our car. To have ‘equity’ in something is to own it. For example, Jeff Bezos has equity in Amazon because he owns shares (or stock) in the company. As the company increases in value, the market price of your shares increases. This means that every time you purchase something on Amazon, not only does Amazon’s revenue increase (which increases Jeff Bezos’s salary or bonus), it also increases the value of the company, therefore increasing the price of each share.
It doesn’t necessarily have to be companies. There are some investments that hold their equity in other areas, such as gold. In this case, the fund manager will buy gold, and sell ‘shares’ of the gold on the open market. As the value of gold increases, the value of each share also increases and people can sell their shares for a profit.
Equities can define how fast and how long your car will run. Within equities, you can dive into asset qualities and other specifics that can be as different as the electric engine is to a V8 supercharged sports car’s engine. Equities give us the power and growth potential we need to earn our passive income.
Fixed income (also known as ‘bonds’) are the safety features of the car and this form of investment is far simpler than equities. In every sense of the phrase, it is an “IOU”. You, as the investor, are lending money to governments or companies for them to use in their operations. This is a lower risk and lower reward strategy for investing. The company or government gets a loan, and you receive a regular interest payment. For example, if you were to lend Amazon $10,000, they would pay you an interest payment (i.e. 1.5% or $150) either annually or divided monthly and return the $10,000 balance at the end of the term.
One common factor you’ll often hear about bonds is related to the interest rate.
If we paused time and looked at interest rates now, we would see a sharp decline in a new bond compared to 1 year ago. This is because the Bank of Canada (along with other country’s banks) have dropped interest rates in an attempt to stimulate the economy. Interest rates play a large role in the ‘risk’ associated with a bond, but that analysis is for another post.
Traditionally, bonds are a much safer way to invest, as there is little risk of a government or company not honouring and paying that debt back, but it also carries a lower reward. Your $10,000 does not participate in company growth in the same way equities do.
In regards to it’s relationship to our car analogy, with fixed income being the safety system, bonds protect the car as it moves. If there was an event that was cause for concern (for example, the markets dropped in value and you were unable to go to work), the fixed income component would preserve a portion of the investment to limit the damage.
The whole purpose and the relationship between equities and fixed income is to get you from Point A (where you are now financially) to Point B (retirement, first house, education, etc.). This is where mutual funds come into play.
What are mutual funds?
Again, by their name, it is easy to guess that they are a funds designed to be invested by multiple people pooling their money toward a mutual goal. There are lots of different types of mutual funds. For example, there are funds designed for people who want to invest in certain parts of the world, different industries, or even subject to certain moral or ethical standards.
At it’s core, a mutual fund is a makeup of equities and/or bonds that provide growth opportunity while minimizing the downside potential. Since everyone’s risk tolerance and time horizon is different, finding the right mutual fund (or funds) to invest in takes more thought than most people would imagine. If you are considered ‘high-risk’ you may want a mutual fund that holds more equities than bonds. Vice versa, if you were closer to retirement and wanted to preserve your investment, you would lean toward a higher allocation of fixed income and safety.
Common Question: How is this better than buying individual stocks?
Quick answer: it depends. Do you have the time?
A long time advisor once shared an analogy with me that I thought was powerful. Unfortunately, it is highly visual, but I will do my best to paint the scene.
Diversification is one of the main strategies used by mutual funds. Imagine you have a pencil, and that pencil represents a stock. It can be any stock you’d like, but it is one single stock. You have heard that this company has a strong future and will grow in value for you, so you ‘get in at the ground floor’, and invest everything into that company. Now, fast forward in time. We have an event such as the recession of 2008, the tech bubble of 2000, or the current COVID-19 crisis. That company is put under financial stress, as this is an unforeseen position and the world is rapidly changing. Some companies are able to adapt and survive, and others can’t change fast enough and are forced to shut down. A real example of this may be the loss of mega-companies such as Sears. Sears couldn’t adapt to cater to the online shopper and subsequently ‘died out’. Any stock that Sears had is worthless today.
So… take your imaginary pencil and bend it. Imagine that you bending the pencil is the company going through a stressful period. Does it snap? Maybe not, but you, as the share holder, are not protected from the companies failure. The money you invested could be gone.
Now imagine you have a box of 50 pencils, each pencil still representing a single stock. You take them out of the box, you strap an elastic band around them, and you try to bend them all together.
They don’t break so easily.
The difference between trying to buy individual stocks and buying a mutual fund, is that the mutual fund offers greater diversity and protection from market fluctuation. Theoretically, you could go out and buy 50 individual stocks and manually create your own diversification, but most people would find it takes a lot of work to purchase, research, value, sell, re-balance and execute a specific investment strategy while also earning income at their own career. The mutual fund offers a much simpler solution to investors and can create a stream of passive income.
The value of not putting all of your eggs in one basket is that you are more protected from a depressed market. A crazy and unexpected event occurs and some of the companies feel the stress, but even if one company falls to the wayside, your portfolio is held together by the remaining mix of equities and fixed income.
Creating passive income can be more than working a 9-to-5 career and investing in mutual funds, but investments are a staple in most successful people’s financial structure.
I want to circle back to my original analogy.
A car has a single purpose. The kind of car, how fast you drive, and where you are going is up to you. But at the end of the day, the car’s role is to transport you from where you are now to where you want to be in the future. If you start your journey without enough gas in the tank or with worn out tires, you are putting yourself at risk of stalling or having problems down the road. Like an investment strategy, a car with proper care and maintenance will ensure you eventually reach your goal.
Proper investment strategies can provide peace of mind when traveling down life’s roads. You never know when there will be an unexpected twist or turn, and being prepared is a key to success.